In a week of upsets - only three of the eight seeds made it beyond the second round - Kudryavtseva and Rodionova were no match for the Italians, who reeled off the first four games and never looked back, wrapping up a 62 61 win after less than an hour on court.
Errani and Vinci, who are top seeds this week, won the title in Rome last year and believe their compatriots inside the Campo Centrale could make the difference in Sunday's final against 2009 champions Hsieh Su-Wei and Peng Shuai.
"We are so happy we won a great match today against two great players," Vinci said. "We played a good game and we are happy to reach the final again in Rome with this incredible crowd."
"I was very tired after the singles, but we played really good today, with very few errors, so we are very happy about that," Errani, who a few hours earlier lost in the singles to Victoria Azarenka, added.
The finalists have already met twice this season, with Errani and Vinci winning a tight encounter at the Australian Open before Hsieh and Peng gained revenge a few months later in Indian Wells.
"We played them in Indian Wells and we know it will be a very tough match, but I hope that being on clay and having the crowd with us will help to get the win," Errani added.