After storming through the rest of their matches this week without dropping a set, the No.4-seeded Peschke and Srebotnik stormed out to a 4-0 lead against No.2 seeds Sara Errani and Roberta Vinci in the final - winning 16 of the 17 points played - before Errani and Vinci had to concede via retirement.
Errani had played through a left hip injury during the singles final, but couldn't do it again.
"It was a special day, but it was also a very difficult day for me," Errani said. "I tried my best but I couldn't do anything more with the injury, so it ended up being a sad day for me in the end.
"But it was an unbelievable atmosphere today. The crowd was just amazing."
"It's very unfortunate for Sara," Srebotnik said. "She had such an unbelievable week - the finals in singles and doubles - but I hope she can recover quickly and be ready for Roland Garros next week.
"To end the final like this, not finishing the match by winning the last point and really winning the match, it's not the same feeling. But regardless of this, going into the final we were very happy about reaching the final. We had great matches, tough opponents and tough matches throughout the week.
"The goal was to get as much confidence as possible before Paris and I think we did that."
Peschke and Srebotnik now have 10 WTA doubles titles together, winning their first two in 2010 (Indian Wells and New Haven), six more in 2011 (Auckland, Doha, Eastbourne, Wimbledon, Carlsbad and Beijing), one in 2012 (Sydney) and now one in 2014 (Rome). They are now 10-12 in finals together.
Peschke now has 27 WTA doubles title her name, while Srebotnik collected her 35th.